空間設計|法國不對稱現代山頂教堂 Colline Notre-Dame de haut|設計盒子DESIGNBOX

法國不對稱現代山頂教堂 Colline Notre-Dame de haut

法國不對稱現代山頂教堂 Colline Notre-Dame de haut

Colline Notre-Dame du Haut,座落於南部孚日省,是一座建築與靈性的高地。 Colline Notre-Dame du Haut位於Ronchamp(弗朗什孔泰),在孚日地區自然公園南部,具有很高的歷史,藝術和精神價值。 勒·柯布西耶(Le Corbusier)於1955年在那裡建造了一座小教堂。讓·普羅維(JeanProuvé)在1970年代建造了一座鐘樓,最近,2011年,倫佐·皮亞諾(Renzo Piano)在山上工作。 這樣就誕生了由聖克萊爾修道院,警衛室,鐘樓和巴黎聖母院組成的和諧建築合奏。 後者是一座標誌性建築,於2016年7月被列入聯合國教科文組織世界遺產名錄。全年,各種文化活動都在希爾活動。今天,Colline Notre-Dame du Haut每年接待來自世界各地的65,000名遊客。
Chapelle Notre-Dame du Haut de Ronchamp是基督教神聖建築的標誌性建築,徹底改變了20世紀的宗教建築。禮拜堂坐落在Bourlémont山頂上,佔據了孚日山脈與汝拉山脈之間的“貝爾福山脈”。像大多數鄰近的高地一樣,山丘樹木繁茂,除了山頂的山頂相對平坦。在與地平線妥協時,勒·柯布西耶(Le Corbusier)考慮了樹木的窗簾和讓人眼前一亮的景象。教堂的總體平面圖是在幾天內繪製的:一個不對稱的平面圖,其彎曲的牆壁被形狀像蟹殼的屋頂覆蓋著。這個計劃由一個單一的空間組成,沒有任何抵押或抵押,放棄了十字架的象徵形式,但仍然面向東方。外牆是獨立的,卻相互呼應。西牆自身打開,在每一端將兩個小教堂隔開,沐浴在柔和的光線中,從塔狀的天窗中隔離出來。設在北牆中的第三個小教堂通過構架次要入口,與前兩個小教堂相呼應。為了區分各個子空間,勒·柯布西耶(Le Corbusier)妥協了光線。他本人使用房屋單元的涼廊和他五十年代的繪畫所繪製的各種色彩,來畫在厚厚的南牆中鑲嵌的窗戶。框架由支撐屋頂的鋼筋混凝土柱和梁製成,嵌在大量填充牆中,填充牆由從舊教堂回收的石頭製成。該計劃是免費的,外牆也是免費的。以這種方式區分牆壁和框架之間的質量,可以使建築師在牆壁和屋頂之間留出一定的間隙,並通過不引人注目的金屬球形接頭將其連接到支柱上。船體在技術上被設計為飛機機翼,由兩個6厘米厚,2.26米相距的混凝土膜組成。南牆有許多開口,是由混凝土框架組成,上面覆蓋著噴灑有崗石的金屬絲網。在教堂附近,勒·柯布西耶(Le Corbusier)建造了兩座低矮的建築物,分別是看守者的房子和朝聖者的房子,其中包括一間餐廳和兩個宿舍。該地點由致力於1944年戰爭受害者的階梯金字塔完成。
The Colline Notre-Dame du Haut, a high place of architecture and spirituality nestled in the southern Vosges. The Colline Notre-Dame du Haut, located in Ronchamp (Franche-Comté), to the south of the Ballons des Vosges Regional Natural Park, is a place of high historical, artistic and spiritual value. Le Corbusier built a chapel there in 1955. Jean Prouvé built a campanile in the 1970s and recently, in 2011, Renzo Piano worked on the hill. Thus was born the harmonious architectural ensemble made up of the Sainte-Claire monastery, the Gatehouse, the campanile and the Notre-Dame du Haut chapel. The latter, an iconic building, was included on the UNESCO World Heritage List in July 2016. From above
Various cultural events animate the Hill throughout the year. Today, the Colline Notre-Dame du Haut welcomes 65,000 visitors a year from all over the world.

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Chapelle Notre-Dame du Haut de Ronchamp是基督教神聖建築的標誌性建築,徹底改變了20世紀的宗教建築。
The Chapelle Notre-Dame du Haut de Ronchamp is iconic of Christianity’s sacred architecture, revolutionizing 20th century religious architecture. The chapel sits on the Bourlémont hilltop, dominating the “Belfort gap” between the Vosges and Jura mountain ranges. Like most of the neighbouring heights, the hill is wooded, except at its summit, which is relatively flat. In compromising with the horizon, Le Corbusier took into account the curtains of trees that meet the eye and the glimpses of distant prospects. The general ground plan of the chapel was drawn in a few days: an asymmetrical plan with curved walls surmounted by a roof shaped like a crab shell. This plan consisting of a single space, without collaterals or transept and abandoning the symbolic form of the cross, nonetheless still faces east. The facades are independent yet echo each other. The western wall turns in on itself, at each end isolating two chapels bathed in soft light from a tower-shaped skylight. A third chapel set into the north wall echoes the two preceding ones by framing, and thus magnifying, a secondary entrance. To differentiate the various subspaces, Le Corbusier compromises with the light. He himself paints the windows set into in the thick south wall using a range of colours taken from the loggias of the housing units and his paintings of the fifties. The frame, made of columns and beams of reinforced concrete supporting the roof, is embedded in the mass of the filling walls, made from stones recovered from the old church. The plan is free, likewise the facades. Distinguishing in this way between the mass of the walls and the frame allows the architect to leave a gap between the wall and the roof, connected to the pillars by unobtrusive metal ball joints. The hull is technically designed as an airplane wing consisting of two concrete membranes 6 centimetres thick and 2.26 metres apart (Modulor). The south wall with its numerous openings is composed of a concrete frame covered with a wire mesh sprayed with gunite. Near the chapel, Le Corbusier built two low buildings, the caretaker’s house and the pilgrims’ house consisting of a restaurant and two dormitories.
The site is completed by a step pyramid dedicated to the victims of the 1944 fighting.

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Source: DezeenColline Notre-Dame de Haut