Tourism is both a category of human behavior, and the multitrillion-dollar industry that caters to it. Research on tourism and environment crosses a wide range of social and natural science disciplines, and key contributions are scattered across many ﬁelds. Traditions in tourism research are very different from those in environmental science. Tourism is a large and long-established industry,but tourism research is relatively small,new, insular and inward looking, with competition between cliques and debate between devotees of different methods The traditions of tourism research include a strong emphasis on books, as a complement to journal articles, to present primary research data as well as reviews. With rather few exceptions, environmental aspects get a somewhat short shrift in the highest-impact tourism journals. This applies even for issues such as climate change, which are critical to the future shape and survival of the tourism industry. Much of the most signiﬁcant and relevant research in tourism and environment has been published in journals of conservation and economics. There are ∼1,500 individual academic publications on various aspects of tourism and environment, most of them published within the past 25 years. Indeed, there are over 600 articles analyzing recreational disturbances to birds and other terrestrial wildlife . There are several volumes on ecotourism, differing considerably in approach and technical detail. Related to these are texts on recreation ecology, adventure tourism, and park and wilderness management. There are books on sustainable tourism and responsible tourism, oriented largely toward social and economic considerations. There is limited research on environmental planning and impact assessment for large-scale or mainstream ﬁxed-site tourism development. There are several books on tourism and climate change. Tourism uses nature as part of its products; it creates environmental impacts; and it can sometimes contribute to conservation . This review considers these three interactions in turn. Thus, it starts with considerations of most concern in tourism research and ends with those of greater interest in environmental research. It cites about one-tenth of relevant literature directly, emphasizing large-scale reviews, classic contributions, the most recent articles in each subtopic, and, where possible, the highest-ranked journals.
Mainstream, Adventure, Consumptive, and Nonconsumptive Subsectors
People travel to visit other people and other places, and icon attractions include nature as well as culture: national parks as well as famous buildings. About a ﬁfth of the global tourism and travel industry, worth around a trillion U.S. dollars a year, depends heavily on outdoor. There is thus an extensive research literature on tourist demographics and motivations, on tourism marketing, and on the economic scale of various activity subsectors either locally or globally. There is also a rather more limited literature on the details of product design and competitive ﬁne-tuning. Environmental components of these, however, are rather limited both in practice and in analysis. As measured by economic expenditure, the largest nature-based subsectors are those that include extensive accommodation and activity infrastructure as well as associated amenity migration and residential property development. In these cases, the natural environment is used principally as an outdoor playground. The main examples are the ski industry, the marina industry, and the beach tourism sector. In research terms, these are considered as mass or mainstream tourism. Ski resorts rely on retail shopping precincts and residential land sales as well as on lift ticket sales, but their position and layout is dictated by terrain and climate, and many are on public land originally allocated for forestry or conservation. In developed nations, beach and marina tourism are largely integrated into coastal cities. In developing nations, the main model is the enclave resort, which sometimes grow to resort towns. Although most tourism enterprises are privately owned, in some countries they are owned directly by government agencies. In others, they are owned privately by government ofﬁcials through systems of patronage. Many outdoor tourism activities also involve large numbers of participants, but less infrastructure and associated expenditure. Most are available either as independent self-supported recreation or as commercial tourism products. They may be considered in three categories, commonly labeled as consumptive, adventure, and (nonconsumptive) nature based. All of these may have marine as well as terrestrial components. Consumptive nature-based tourism refers to recreational hunting and ﬁshing.
Adventure tourism uses outdoor natural environments as a setting for excitement-based recreation rather than appreciation of nature. There is, however, considerable overlap both in individual motivations and in the design of commercial products, which often include nature-based, adventurous, and cultural components in a single product. Watching wildlife can be exciting as well as educational, and many adventure activities take place in spectacular landscapes. At least 45 different outdoor activities are offered as adventure tourism products. Risk management and participant motivations for these have been examined in particular detail. The structure and packaging of individual products, including the role of individual participant skills and remote icon destinations, are less well studied. Nonconsumptive nature-based tourism includes all activities based on watching animals or plants or enjoying scenery. Worldwide, this subsector relies largely on national parks, wilderness areas, and other public lands and oceans. These are visited by local residents, independent travelers, and commercial tour clients. There is considerable research on visitor numbers and on the economic scale, economic impacts, and social economic value of tourism reliant on particular protected areas or wildlife populations. There is more limited research on economic loss to tourism through damage to the natural environment. Nature-based tourism provides one immediately visible cash component.
The relative attractiveness of different tourism destinations, for different activities at different times of year, is already being altered by climate change. Skiing seasons are already shorter, and snow quality poorer, in many heavily frequented ski resort destinations in a number of countries. Beach tourism destinations may be affected by increasing storminess in some coastal areas, and dive tourism destinations are being affected by damage to coral reefs associated with increasing ocean temperatures and acidity. National parks and wilderness zones in forest and woodland areas may suffer higher risks of ﬁre and consequent closure, preventing recreational access. Destinations that are currently free from particular human diseases, pathogens, parasites, or venomous animals and plants may no longer enjoy such advantages in future. Native ecosystems that currently act as tourist attractions may be invaded by weeds, feral animals, or plant and animal pathogens (some of them dispersed by the tourists themselves) and may become less attractive as a consequence. Various sectors of the tourism industry can be affected in different ways.
提供/Prof. Markus Pillmayer