There are however some small but significant changes in tourism context in recent years, also remaining in the set driven by the tourist ideology, with the search of new forms directed mostly to the relationship between local society and tourist, through a diffusion of the tourist flows not only along the coastal areas but also toward to the more interior territories. There is a need to go beyond the ways traced by the tourist ideology with the purpose to track new forms down where find again the principles of the “relational tourism”, new and unexpected forms which tourists and local society can enter in contact in a not programmed and not organized, in which the optimal conditions to the “mutual vulnerability” among guest and hosts are created. Sardinia’s tourist territory, in reason for its complexity and the contemporary necessity to identify new touristic forms that don’t pursue the principles of the tourist ideology, as optimal place offers itself to reason on the possibility to identify appropriate fields and cases of study for new relational forms that can support a social dialogue and that, through this, can support the perception of a new sense of the place. The presented case studies are examples of sustainable integration between services and tourist forms, among tourists and local society. Keywords: Relational tourism, social sustainability, alternative forms of tourism, tourist spaces is today as a vast set of attracting places, services, local or global actions, symbols and elements of authenticity, and touristic destinations appear and disappear with increasing speed. So, tourist phenomenon becomes more and more complex, with superficial uses of the places. Tourist forms are proposed with the goal to give an experience conducted as a ready-made product communicated by the media and tourists prefigure an idea of the place to visit before the trip. This complexity obviously sets problems of environmental, economic and social sustainability. Sustainability is often declared as useful for reaching certain tourist segments more careful to environmental issues, but it is not always real, especially there is a need to understand what is meant by the term sustainability, whether the protection of places, the search for resilience of the territory or the comparison with local societies. This last declination of the sustainability is, particularly, the central theme of this paper.
確實，如果旅遊通常是現成的體驗，那麼它傾向於讓個人接受，保護和引導的設備，與其他人相遇並不那麼簡單，或者通常是外部指導。當遊客在沒有預先定義的思維導圖的情況下與當地社會會面時，他們之間就建立了關係。建立平等關係不足以確保旅遊業形式的社會可持續性：還需要做些其他事情，因為不會容忍，經常欺騙或剝削旅遊者。重要的是，旅遊業應成為在旅遊區建設城市化的機會，不僅向遊客提供服務，還向接待人口提供服務。當代的旅遊空間今天的旅遊場所和空間是狹窄的後現代空間，具有集中的旅遊圖像和圖標，因此與上下文（甚至是物理環境）分開。可能會看到一種普遍的文化變異，這樣一來，遊客空間對於領土規劃以及地方和社會發展總是越來越重要。旅遊業的影響通常決定了一些反映和預測社會自身變化的空間過程。Indeed, if the tourism is often a ready-made experience, then it favors the surrender of the individual to an apparatus that receives, protects and guide, it is not so simple to meet the others: the tourist doesn’t have real occasions to meet the host society or, often, this meeting is externally directed. Relationships born when a tourist, meeting a local society without previously defined mental maps, realize an equal relationship with them. The construction of an equal relationship is not sufficient to ensure the social sustainability of tourism forms: something is needed more because the tourist will not be barely tolerated, often cheated or exploited. It is important that tourism becomes an opportunity to build urbanity in tourist areas, providing services not only to the tourist but also to the host population. Contemporary tourist space Today tourist places and spaces are decisely Post-Modern ones, with concentration of tourism images and icons and for this reason separated from the context, even physically. It is possible to see a general cultural mutation and, in this way, tourist spaces always assume an increasing importance both for the planning of the territory and for local and social development. Tourism influences and, often, determines some spatial processes that reflect and anticipate changes in society itself.
The sustainability of tourism forms is largely linked to economic policies4 but is also expressed in terms of environmental compatibility dwelling too long on reductive visions not considered absolutely satisfactory like that of the tourism exclusively concerned with natural processes or it is just as often confused with the alternative tourism than the traditional one. Sardinia represents a case study of the reduction of tourism to an economic policy: prevailing views in tourism policies are always directed exclusively to receptivity and to the establishment of new structures, focusing on “typicality” of the places and on forms of advertising, marketing, endorsed repeated models such as bed and breakfasts, hotels tout court, tourist residences, diffused hotels and so on. In the towns, both coastal and internal, the number of these structures is increasing more and more . Sardinian context therefore focus almost exclusively to the objects centre of tourism, what hotels, resort, B&B etcetera, without considering in any way impacts on the territory. This marks a perseverant vision about the territory like an object, with tourist politics few farsighted and directed only to the creation of extraordinary spaces, without any relation and temporally limited, where the tourist recognizes only in a superficial way local host society, forming and undoing aleatory relationships. The temporal factor deserves nevertheless a further reasoning. The places are seen immovable in time, as if they were immune from the effects that the tourist flows produce on the territory. This politics could be considered as an ideology that proposes the territory in symbolic form, reviving the archetypes and proposing them to the tourist flows, often with few elaborations giving prominence to the ethnocentrism, repeating the same shapes and models and completely detached from a complete planning system. This process of evolution can be defined as a tourism ideology. It is useful to try to represent the tourist path in Sardinia by a modeling tree that shows the continuous generation of new forms, including through the reinterpretation of existing ones. But what effect has had on the territory this continuous and faceted development.
But experience does not happen in a present time, draws strength from its past, as it is anticipated by preconceptions that are inherent in everyone. It is not possible to have a pure presence, but a previously judged and evaluated object; instead tourism forms careful to the subjects, to the people, rather than to the individuals and oriented to the building of “relationships” between the ‘I’, the ‘other’ can be defined relational. The problem is how (and where) can be found tourist forms favorable to an equal relationship with the otherness; this means to understand what are the conditions under which a person is generally prepared by interaction with others. Environmental and cognitive psychology studies show that these conditions are created when a person is vulnerable or is in particular conditions to feel mostly inclinable to the contact with the others. The conditions are created when the two parties are each other “vulnerable”, where for vulnerability it is intended the possibility to feel “touched” for something or someone, a possibility to feel common, as opposed to the invulnerability that the tourism generally creates, or indifference to the contexts and the local societies. The vulnerability between tourists and between tourists and local society born when it creates a bond due to a particular condition of necessity or need. To realize vulnerability conditions means then to identify what can be the requisite to generate a contact between the parts. It is necessary to think what can be the way for which a tourist experience doesn’t hinder the birth of unexpected relationships. Alternative forms of social sustainable tourism: two examples of relational tourism in Sardinia offers an interesting field of research with respect to relations between tourists and local society, finding new possible tourism forms that favor a social dialogue and through this encourage the perception of a new sense of place. Then the purpose is to find “inclusive” tourism forms that contrast the “exclusive” one typical of the tourist ideology. These forms are contemplated in what is generally considered “social tourism“ , i.e. the set of tourism activities that can respond to a request for relationships and is not directed only to specific social tourist categories of persons in situations of disadvantage.
Tourist form has again a real importance on low density contexts, generally marginal and with few services. The few presents don’t guarantee the same conditions of urbanity of the most densely populated territories. Then it starts a vicious cycle that leads to depopulation, which in turn affect the quality and quantity of services offered. To reason only on the tourism as form of economy in this type of territories, like Sardinian ones – the same reasoning is valid in areas most densely populated but very poor and underdeveloped – only requires always new hotels or resorts, while thinking about tourism as an opportunity to provide services for tourists and local society, means not only to intervene on the tourist but also generate positive effects on the host territory and improve their quality of life. Having a service in low density areas such as health and personal care means to allow to whom that live in those places to ensure easier access to goods which may be disposed only at considerable distances. It means, therefore, to build urbanity, to increase the opportunities and the quality of the life to reach a territorial equity. It means also to produce a new sense of the place: on the one hand, thanks to the possibility of having a quality service, the local society is forced to look elsewhere for their own welfare and takes ownership of their sites, on the other the tourist finds that existential authenticity, base in travel motivations. It obtains simultaneously an appropriating and re-appropriation of places by the two subjects of tourism, on a shared space. It also produces a new place, and space tourism ceases to be regarded as reterritorialized. It is not therefore, essential to pursue the tourist market, but rather choose to work on people as true stakeholders in tourism process, on the possibility that compares us in an equal way, on the possibility to share a sense of belonging to something that is not a limited time experience but a lasting trace in everyday life.
提供/Prof. Markus Pillmayer