DB專欄|論暗黑觀光之跨文化觀點|設計盒子DESIGN BOX



世界正在變得越來越小,越來越快,它可以被稱為地球村,可以被認為是未來社會的一種形式(Barnlund 1998:35)。在一個地球村,這種互動是不可避免的。如果可以學習語言,那麼對身體接觸的理解就需要不同的知識和文化理解(Griffith,Harvey,2001:89)。上一章繼續介紹,在訪問巴黎的Catacombes de Paris時,需要針對跨文化方面訂製旅遊行程。對於該行業來說,重要的是要知道如何興起代表不同文化類型和交流環境的國際旅遊市場。在文化和元素分析中,基於心理學研究和專注於個人與群體關係的研究,可以區分不同社會的文化類型(Triandis,Bontempo,Villareal,1988:324,326)。可以命名兩個文化群體:個人主義(如美國、加拿大、歐洲–英國、德國、斯堪的納維亞、澳大利亞、紐西蘭,個人的目標式優先於集體的)和集體主義文化如亞洲(日本、中國、韓國、印度、非洲)、地中海國家、中東、中南美洲(巴西、智利、阿根廷)文化中,個人主義目標ˋ次要於集體主義;在集體主義文化中,個人的行為如何與整個團隊互動被認為是一件非常重要的事。從台灣遊客在文化層面上的行為來看,他們屬於集體主義文化。個人主義和集體主義文化也代表了不同的方式,即如何表達對服務提供商的情感和行為等。個人主義者只關心個人問題,而在集體主義文化中,整個群體的價值才被考慮。在集體主義文化中,情感代表著內在、主觀的感覺,而在個人主義文化中,情感代表著現實的變化(Mesquita,2001:69)。綜上所述,可以得出結論,全球化幫助發展了暗黑旅遊業,同時也帶來了新的挑戰。對旅遊業中跨文化交流的整體文獻分析強調了新興市場在概念上的文化差異,這些差異的內容對企業構成挑戰

In the future, people will spend more and more time with people who will be speaking different languages, related to different values and will be interacting to different principles, compared to ones currently known in Western societies. World is becoming smaller and faster and it can be named as global village and can be considered as a form of future societies (Barnlund 1998: 35). In a global village, such interaction is unavoidable. If language can be learned, then understanding of physical contact is something requiring different knowledge and cultural understanding (Griffith, Harvey, 2001:89). Continuing with the last chapter, customized packages are needed for intercultural aspect for visiting Les Catacombes de Paris. For the industry, it is important to know how to emerge international tourism markets represent different cultural type and communication context. In analysis of culture and elements different societies are encompassing into their cultures types can be distinguished, based on psychological studies and studies concentrating on individual relationship to group (Triandis, Bontempo, Villareal, 1988:324,326). Two cultural groups can be named: individualist (USA, Canada, Europe – UK, Germany, Scandinavia, Australia, New Zealand, individual goals are primary versus collectivist) and collectivist cultures (Asia, Japan, China, Korea, India), Africa, Mediterranean countries, Middle East, Central and South America (Brazil, Chile, Argentina), goals of individualist are subordinated to collectivist; in collectivist cultures it is considered to be important – how my own action interacts with entire group. From Taiwanese tourists behavior in a cultural dimension level, they belong to collectivist cultures. Individualist and Collectivist cultures also represent different approach how emotions and behaviors and so on, also towards service supplier are express. Individualists are concerned only about personal concerns, while in collectivist cultures the worth of entire group is considered; in collectivist cultures emotions signal internal, subjective feelings, while in a individualist culture emotions signal changes of reality (Mesquita, 2001: 69). Summarizing, it can be concluded that globalization has helped to develop dark tourism and at the same time created new challenges. Overall literature analysis of intercultural communication in tourism highlights conceptual cultural differences of emerging markets and content of these differences is challenging to business

應將跨文化交流基本原則的整合納入國際旅遊業,因為它們尊重旅遊業的重要要素。由於台灣自2007年起實施了新的勞動法,因此全職勞工每周有2天的休息時間(週六和周日),而之前是1天半的休息時間。政府已經注意到旅遊業的擴張在經濟發展中的重要作用,並啟動了一項國家發展計劃——2002年遊客入境倍增計劃(DTAP),以促進旅遊業的發展。此外,促進旅遊業也是許多私營公司和服務提供商的主要關切。為了提供適當的旅遊產品和服務,營銷經理應確定目標市場,這是服務提供商希望吸引的核心客戶群。對於旅遊研究者和市場經理而言,有效了解客戶的第一步是將整個市場劃分為具有相似產品需求或服務興趣的相對同質的群體。一旦確定了這些細分市場,研究人員和從業人員便可以設計適當的服務藍圖和營銷策略,以便為目標市場提供更好的服務。對於黑暗旅遊研究,市場研究人員應使用特定於假期的生活方式測量值(即假期生活方式變量)來區分遊客消費行為的差異。更不用說該論文是基於一個特定的目的地-Les Catacombes de Paris。儘管大多數度假生活方式研究是在西方國家進行的,但在亞洲國家(台灣)開展的度假生活方式調查可能會為當前的旅遊營銷文獻增添新的跨文化前景。 (Joseph S. Chen,Huang&Cheng,2009)然而,在暗黑旅遊業中進行研究時,在旅遊業中難以完全實施跨文化方法。在前往Les Catacombes de Paris進行旅行時,對現場遊客和導遊的採訪非常成功,但在嘗試採訪該站點的經理後,被拒絕了。甚至在我到達之前在Facebook頁面上寫了一條消息,一封電子郵件並打電話給他們,他們在Facebook頁面上回答道:「親愛的_____,我們由衷的感謝您對Les Catacombes de Paris的關注。但是我們無法滿足您的要求。」

Integration of basic principles of intercultural communication should be respected into international tourism business as they respect important elements of the industry. Due to the new labor law in Taiwan since 2007, that gives full‐time workers a 2‐day break (Saturday and Sunday) per week—compared to a 1½‐day break beforehand. The government has noticed a vital role of tourism expansion in economic development and launched a national development plan—the 2002 Doubling Tourist Arrivals Plan (DTAP)—to promote tourism. In addition, the promotion of tourism is also a major concern of many private corporations and service providers. In order to provide appropriate tourism products and services, marketing managers should identify target markets, which are core groups of customers whom the service providers desire to attract. For the tourism researcher and market manager, the first step to effectively understand the customers is to divide the total market into relatively homogenous groups with similar product needs or service interests. Once these market segments are identified, the researchers and practitioners could design appropriate service blueprints and marketing strategies to provide better services for target markets. For dark tourism studies, marketing researchers should use vacation‐specific lifestyle measurements, which are vacation lifestyle variables, to distinguish the differences of tourist consumption behaviors. Not to mention this thesis is based on a specific destination – Les Catacombes de Paris. While a majority of the vacation lifestyle studies have been conducted in the Western countries, launching an investigation on vacation lifestyle in an Asian country—Taiwan—may add new cross‐cultural prospects into current tourism marketing literature. (Joseph S. Chen, Huang & Cheng, 2009) However, doing research in dark tourism, intercultural approach is not easy to fully implement in the tourism section. Filed trip to Les Catacombes de Paris, the interview with the tourists on spot and with the tour guide was very successful but after trying to interview the manager of the site, got declined. Even wrote a message on Facebook page, an email and called before my arrival, they replied on the Facebook page said: Dear _____, we sincerely thank you for your interest in Les Catacombes de Paris. But we are unable to satisfy your request.

「我們不想將Catacombes de Paris與暗黑旅遊聯繫起來。我們對Catacombes的形象非常謹慎,Catacombes是巴黎市的骨灰庫,裡面有數百萬巴黎人的遺骸。對我們來說,地下墓穴是一個具有歷史內涵的獨特文化遺址。感謝您的諒解。 —誠摯的 博物館的團隊」。令我感到失望的是,假設他們不熟悉暗黑旅遊的概念,他們沒有試圖向國際遊客宣傳健康的正面形象,因此,關於暗黑旅遊的負面消息還在繼續:他們說這不是認真的學術研究。研究的心態正在幫助他們建立一個可持續的旅遊業並吸引深層次的文化旅行者,因此進行這項研究並為不同文化的遊客開發合適的跨文化方法框架,為他們做出貢獻更有意義。下一篇文章中我們提出一些更多台灣遊客在前往巴黎的Catacombes de Paris時可能進行的行銷方法假設。

We do not want to associate the Catacombes de Paris with dark tourism. We are very careful about the image of the Catacombes, which are the ossuary of the city of Paris containing the remains of millions of Parisians. For us, the catacombes are a cultural site with history content, unique. We thank you for your understanding, our best. – Museum’s team. To my disappointment, assuming they are not familiar with the concept of dark tourism, they are not trying to promote a wholesome positive image to international tourists, therefore, some negative gossip is still going on about dark tourism: they said it is not a serious academic research. The mentality of the research is helping them have a sustainable tourism industry and attract deep cultural travelers, it makes more sense to do this research and to develop a suitable intercultural approach framework to the different culture tourists, contribute to them. The following content is some possible marketing methods assumptions for more Taiwanese tourists to pay a visit in Les Catacombes de Paris when they travel to Paris.


圖/文/ Christina Tseng

攝影/ Websites